Iron ores are a common material on Mars and are responsible for the planet's red coloration.
Regolith refers to the accumulated surface layer of minerals that naturally forms on the planet's surface.
Mars is considered a sulphur-rich planet with plentiful deposits on the surface, mostly in the form of sulphate salts.
Martian Clays refers to the large quantity of differing clay materials that are widespread on and below the surface of Mars.
Silicon is the second-most common element on Mars after oxygen. It is extremely prevalent across the entire planet.
While running water does not exist on Mars (yet), over 5 million cubic kilometres of ice have been identified across the surface of the red planet.
Mars' winters are so cold that carbon dioxide is able to form on the surface as snow and frost. Roughly 25% of the Martian atmosphere cycles through the seasonal icecaps.
Minute titanium deposits have been identified in Martian soil samples. The presence of this metal bodes well for the construction of Martian bases.
Deposits of nickel appear on Mars below the surface and sometimes even on the surface as the result of meteorite impacts.
Aluminium oxides are present in large quantities across the red planet, however its refinement requires a great deal of electrical power.
Chromium is found most commonly on Mars as the toxic hexavalent chromium. Mars' lack of organic carbon prevents this toxic material from easily reverting into trivalent chromium.
Gold has only been found in trace amounts from studied samples. Much like Earth, this highly useful and lustrous metal remains rare.
Mars is considered to be quite rich in uranium ore deposits, though the refinement and shipment of such a dense element hampers resourcing.